Links to Other Pages

EdinPhoto - Home Page  Please send me an e-mail ...  with your questions, comments, suggestions or news.   At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.     At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.  

Photographs and Other Images  -  These include portraits of photographers  -  photographic outings -  Princes Street views  -  Newhaven Fishwives  -  etc.  Early Photography in Edinburgh  -  Talbot, Brewster, Hill & Adamson, Early Professional Photographers in Princes Street, etc.  Professional Photographers in Edinburgh  -  1840 to 1940  -  Their names, dates of business and studio addresses.  The Photographic Society of Scotland  -  1856 to 1873  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, etc.  The History of Edinburgh Photographic Society  -  1861 to date  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, Poems, etc.  EPS Publications - EPS Handwritten Records  -  Photographic Journals  -  Trade Directories  -  Books  -  etc.  Thanks to all who have encouraged and supported me in creating the EdinPhoto web site  -  including descendants of photographers  -  researchers  -  providers of photographs and other material  Background notes on the research thal led up to the creation of this site  -   together with lists of new material added to the site since its launch.  Brief comments on how this site might be used  -  Just browsing?  -  Seeking specific information?  Please add your questions, suggestions or other comments to the Guest Book.  Links to other web sites  -  Photographic Societies  -  Photographic History  -  Family History  -  etc.  Click here to find the link to the Edinburgh Photogrpahic Society web site.

 

A selection of my photographs, many from Edinburgh throughout the year.   Also photos from Scotland, London, Iceland, Italy, Hong Kong and elsewhere     Many old maps of Edinburgh (Old Town, New Town, while City), Leith and Newhaven.  Includes several old transport maps and a comparison of old maps with recent aerial photos.   Old engravings, mailly of Edinburgh scenes.  Some from the 1820s, some from the 1890s,  some others - includes many hand-coloured examples from the 1820s.   News from Edinburgh today  -  Events, Collections, Buildings and Gardens, Transport   This site includes     1. Post card portraits taken in studios in Edinburgh:    2. Post card views either takeen/published by Ediburgh photographers or views of Edinburgh, or both.y Edinburgh    Views of Edinburgh, grouped into three sections:     1. Street views:    2. Buildings:    3. Around Edinburgh   Views of transport around Edinburgh  -  Horse drawn trams and buses, cable cars, electric trams, buses and a few railway photos.  Also several maps of Edinburgh's bus and tram routes.   Links to pages with Photos of Groups   Frequently Asked Questions

  Summary of the updates added to this site each month since the site was launched   Links to Dumbiedykes pages  Link to Granton pages  Link to Leith pages   Link to Newhaven pages   Links to Portobello pages   Link to My Recent Talks

This is Page 1.

Early Photography and Engravings

Please keep scrolling down this page.

 

Museum of Edinburgh Talk
4 February, 2013

PAGE INDEX

The History of

Edinburgh Old Town & Royal Mile

in Pictures

0.

Introduction

Lots of photos to see.
EdinPhoto web site.

1.

Early Photography and Engravings

Talbot, Daguerre, Hill & Adamson,   Engravings.

2.

Edinburgh Photographic Societies

Edinburgh Calotype Club
PSS, EPS.

3.

Old Town  -  Houses and Streets

Dumbiedykes,
St Leonard's.

4.

Old Town  -  Shops and Police Boxes

Shops,  Shops and Cars,
Police Boxes.

5.

Royal Mile  -  Earlier Views

Festivals and Processions,
Closes,  Castle to Palace

6.

Royal Mile  -  Recent Photos  2013

Castle to Palace

7.

Panoramas

Royal Mile.
From Camera Obscura,

 

Early Photography

and

Engravings

Talbot      -      Daguerre      -      Hill & Adamson      -      Engravings

1.

Talbot and Daguerre

There were some earlier experiments in photography, but it was not until 1839 that any reliable process was invented  -  then two came along together - one in England and one in France.

______________________________________________________________

Talbot

In England, it was William Henry Fox Talbot, born 1800, Dorset, who announced his Calotype method.  It produced a negative image on paper which could then be used to make multiple prints.

-  Talbot was a member of the Astronomical Society and the  Royal Society in London.

-  He studied Classics and Mathematics at Cambridge.

-  He was a Biblical scholar and a botanist, and helped to decipher cuneiform script.

-  He corresponded with Herschel who had knowledge of chemistry and Brewster who had knowledge of optics.

-  He began to experiment with photography in 1834.

The Latticed Window

This is a print is from the earliest negative known to have survived, 'The Latticed Window', an early print by Talbot from his home at Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire.

Print made from the oldest negative in existence  -  The Latticed Window at Lacock Abbey, photographed by Talbot in 1835

©  Reproduced from the National Museum of Photography, Film and Television collection,
by courtesy of the Science and Society Picture Library.

The negative and print above are both very small - only about 1 inch square.  This is the type of small, simple camera that Talbot was using around 1840.

Cameras used by Talbot

Cameras used by Talbot  -  1840 to 1842

© Reproduced from the National Museum of Photography, Film and Television collection,
by courtesy of the Science and Society Picture Library. Click here for link to web site.

 

Portraits

Here are two photos of Talbot taken by Ivan Sjabo, one of the prominent photographers in St Andrews.  It seems that bot Sjabo and Talbot must have had a sense of humour!

Talbot

'Hair down, Collar up'

   Portrait of Talbot by Ivan Szavo -  Hair down, Collar up ©

'Hair up, Collar down'

   Portrait of Talbot by Ivan Szavo -  Hair up, Collar down ©

Talbot visited Edinburgh in the early-1840s to take photos for his book, 'Sun Pictures of Scotland'.  Here is one of his photos, showing the Scott Monument under construction:

Talbot was elected an Honorary Member of Edinburgh Photographic Society in 1862 and in later life lived in Edinburgh at several different addresses.

______________________________________________________________

Daguerre

In Paris, it was Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, born 1787, France, who announced his Daguerreotype process.  This process was very different from that discovered by Talbot.  Daguerre's process produced a single delicate image on metal. 

-  Daguerre was a painter who designed diorama scenes for the theatre.

-  He had partnered Nicéphore Niépce for his photographic experiments, until Niépce's death in 1833.

Here is an engraving of Daguerre from one of the early photographic journals.

Fathers of Photography  -  LJM Daguerre  -  Published in a supplement to The Practical Photographer  -  1 August 1891

©  Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh Photographic Society

Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh

I've not found any evidence that Daguerre ever visited Edinburgh, but he did paint this large picture of Holyrood Abbey,

Holyrood Chapel  -  Painting by Daguerre

©  Reproduced by courtesy of The Board of Trustees of the National Museums & Galleries
on Merseyside (Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool) 

Daguerreotype

A Daguerreotype has to be turned at the right angle to the light for the image to be seen clearly, as in this example.  When viewed from other angles, the image might almost disappear.

Daguerreotype 1  -  Photographer not named ©

 

2.

Hill & Adamson

Photography was possible from around 1840, but there were not very many photographers around.  Skill was needed and exposures of several seconds were required for both Calotype and Daguerreotype photographs.

The Daguerreotype process needed special equipment and was hazardous.  One of the steps in the process of producing a Daguerreo-type was to expose the metal plate with the image to vapour from heated mercury!

______________________________________________________________

Hill & Adamson

The Hill & Adamson partnership had a studio at their home, 'Rock House', beside the steps leading up from Regent Road to Calton Hill. They produced some remarkable results in 1843-47.  The partnership was cut short by the early death of Robert Adamson.

DO Hill

DO Hilll at the gate to Rock House  -  a calotype by Hill & Adamson

©  Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh City Libraries and Information Services

 

Here is one of their Calotype photos of The Scott Monument under construction ...

The Scott Monument

Hill & Adamson Calotypes - The Scott Monument under construction

©  This photograph is included with  National Galleries of Scotland permission.   See Copyright Conditions

... and here are two of their photos taken in the Old Town:

John Knox House

Hill & Adamson calotypes - John Knox House

©  This photograph is included with  National Galleries of Scotland permission.   See Copyright Conditions

White Horse Close

Hill & Adamson Calotype - White Horse Close

©  This photograph is included with  National Galleries of Scotland permission.   See Copyright Conditions

Hill & Adamson also took many documentary photos of the fishwives and fishermen of Newhaven, about 3 miles north of the centre of Edinburgh.

Newhaven Fishwives

Hill & Adamson calotype of Newhaven Fishwives - 5

©  Reproduced by courtesy St Andrews University Library                                                                                                             ALB6-92

 

3.

Further Progress in Photography

Professional Photographers

Several advances were made in photography in the 1850s.  The collodion process - producing a negative image on a glass plate which was then used to make an albumen print, took over from both the Calotype and Daguerreotype processes.

More photographers set up in business.  Edinburgh had less than twenty photographic studios in 1855, but the number increased to around sixty by 1865.  Later in the century, competition increased and the prices charged by some of the studios reduced significantly.

Amateur Photographers

It was not until around 1890 that photography became more widely practiced by amateurs.  This was helped by the arrival of dry collodion plates which required shorter exposures, and cameras and film from Kodak who arrived on the scene with their slogan, 'You press the button; we do the rest.'

Film and Silver Prints

By the early-20th century, many photographers had moved from using glass plates to film, and had begun to produce 'silver prints' rather than albumen.  Both film and silver prints continued to be the norm until digital photography took over about a hundred years later.

Other Processes and Formats

Carte de Visite

Victorian photograph albums were usually designed to hold just two sizes of photo, cartes de visit (small) and cabinet prints (larger) between around the 1860s and 1900.

Front and Back of a carte de visite

Alex Ayton jun  -  Carte de Visite  -  No 3  -  front  ©      Alex Ayton jun  -  Carte de Visite  -  No 3  -  front  ©

Cartes de visite were usually bought by the half-dozen or dozen so that they could be shared with family and friends, so the same image would be likely to be added to several photograph albums.

Ambrotype

Photographers might also offer Ambrotypes.  They were sold as individual images,  and mounted behind glass in cases, with folding lids.

Ambrotype in Union Case - hand tinted
©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Union Case designed to hold an ambroype photo - Outside, showing the front and back of the opened hinged case

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

 

Occasionally two photos, such as husband and wife would be mounted in a single case, one inside the body of the case and the other inside the lid.

Bromoil

and other processes

Several other types of photo had periods of being popular - platinum. palladium, bromoil, all favoured by photographers looking for photos that would not fade with time.

DUNURE CASTLE, AYRSHIRE

"Ruins - Old In Story"  -  Bromoil by John M Whitehead

Dunure Castle, Ayrshire  -  Print Title "Ruins Old in Story"  -  by John M Whitehead

©  Reproduced with acknowledgement to  Ed Romney

Stereo Views

Stereo photos were popular for about a decade around the 1860s and again for about a decade around the 1890s.

Stereo Viewer  -  and view of Grassmarket and Edinburgh Castle

Stereo Viewer  -  and view of Grassmarket and Edinburgh Castle

©  Copyright: peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Edinburgh Castle from Johnson Terrace
View looking up to the castle from the South East

Stereo view by Douglas  -  Edinburgh Castle from Johnson Terrace

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Edinburgh Castle from the Castle Esplanade
View looking up to the castle from the East

Stereo view by Douglas  -  Edinburgh Castle from the Castle Esplanade

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Colour Photography

In Victorian times, some of the monochrome photos might be hand tinted, with photographers employing specialist staff to carry out this type of work.

Colour photography became possible in the early 20th century but only very limited use was made of it.

It was from around the 1960s that many keen amateur photographers started to use colour slide film, often Kodachrome. 

From around the 1970s onwards colour prints became more affordable, so the photos being brought back for the family album change from being perhaps 2 1/4 ins square black and white prints to perhaps 6ins x 4 ins colour prints.

Now, in the 21st century, with digital photography, family photos might be viewed on the camera screen and exchanged by email, with only a very small proportion of them ever being printed for the family album.

4.

Pictures  in Books

Usually engravings in 19th Century

Photos

Despite all the advances in photography between 1840 and 1900, very few photos appeared in books over that period.

In the early 1840s, Talbot had produced a couple of  books illustrated by his photography, but there was no mechanical method to print these photos onto the page, so he had to print all the photos individually then attach them to the book pages.

Engravings

Most books continued to be illustrated by engravings, just as they had been before the days of photography.  Here are some engravings from a couple of books.

The engravings in the books were not coloured, but it has become common practice for dealers to break up the books and arrange for the individual engravings to be hand-coloured, then mounted on card.

Below are examples of a few of the engravings, both as published and as subsequently published

Modern Athens

Published 1829

Old Town and North Bridge -  from Princes Street

Engraving in'Modern Athens'  -  Edinburgh Old Town and Waverley Bridge from Princes Street

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Engraving from 'Modern Athens'  -  hand-coloured  -  Edinburgh Old Town and North Bridge from Princes Street

©  Reproduced with acknowledgement to Ian Smith

Edinburgh Old Town and Bank of Scotland  -  from Princes Street

Engraving in 'Modern Athens'  -  Edinburgh Old Town and Bank of Scotland from Princes Street

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Engraving from 'Modern Athens'  -  hand-coloured  -  Edinburgh Old Town and the Bank of Scotland from Princes Street

©  Reproduced with acknowledgement to Ian Smith

Edinburgh Castle  -  view from below Ramsay Garden, the Mound

Engraving in 'Modern Athens  -  Edinburgh Castle

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Engraving from 'Modern Athens'  -  hand-coloured  -  Edinburgh Castle from Ramsay Garden

©  Reproduced with acknowledgement to Ian Smith

Edinburgh Castle  -  The Interior Quadrangle

Engraving from Modern Athens  -  Edinburgh Castle - The Inner Courtyard

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Engraving from 'Modern Athens'  -  hand-coloured  -   Interior quadrangle of Edinburgh Castle

©  Reproduced with acknowledgement to Ian Smith

Edinburgh Castle  -  from the Vennel

Engraving in 'Modern Athens'  -  Edinburgh Castle from the Vennel

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Engraving from 'Modern Athens'  -  hand-coloured  -  Edinburgh Castle from the Vennel

©  Reproduced with acknowledgement to Ian Smith

_____________________________________________________________

Old & New Edinburgh

Published c.1890

Edinburgh from the south

Engraving in 'Old and New Edinburgh'  -   Edinburgh from the south

©  For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.u

Edinburgh from Corstorphine Hill

Engraving from 'Old & New Edinburgh'  -  Corstorphine Hill

©  For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Edinburgh from King's Bastion at Edinburgh Castle  -  1825

Engraving in 'Old & New Edinburgh'  -  Edinburgh from the King's Bastion at the Castle

©  For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Edinburgh from King's Bastion at Edinburgh Castle  -  1825

Engraving in 'Old & New Edinburgh'  -  Edinburgh from the King's Bastion at the Castle

©  For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Edinburgh Castle from Port Hopetoun  -  1825

Engraving in 'Old & New Edinburgh'  -  Edinburgh Castle from Port Hopetoun

©  For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

 

End of Page 1

 

Museum of Edinburgh Talk
4 February, 2013

PAGE INDEX

0.

Introduction

Lots of photos to see.
EdinPhoto web site.

1.

Early Photography and Engravings

Talbot, Daguerre, Hill & Adamson,   Engravings.

2.

Photographic Societies

Edinburgh Calotype Club
PSS, EPS.

3.

Old Town - Houses and Streets

Dumbiedykes,
St Leonard's.

4.

Old Town - Shops and Police Boxes

Shops,  Shops and Cars,
Police Boxes.

5.

Royal Mile - Earlier Views

Festivals and Processions,
Closes,  Castle to Palace

6.

Royal Mile  -  Recent Photos  2013

Castle to Palace

7.

Panoramas

Royal Mile.
From Camera Obscura,

Peter Stubbs, Edinburgh
 Web site:
www.edinphoto.org.uk

__________________

 

Links to Other Pages

EdinPhoto - Home Page  Please send me an e-mail ...  with your questions, comments, suggestions or news.   At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.     At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.  

Photographs and Other Images  -  These include portraits of photographers  -  photographic outings -  Princes Street views  -  Newhaven Fishwives  -  etc.  Early Photography in Edinburgh  -  Talbot, Brewster, Hill & Adamson, Early Professional Photographers in Princes Street, etc.  Professional Photographers in Edinburgh  -  1840 to 1940  -  Their names, dates of business and studio addresses.  The Photographic Society of Scotland  -  1856 to 1873  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, etc.  The History of Edinburgh Photographic Society  -  1861 to date  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, Poems, etc.  EPS Publications - EPS Handwritten Records  -  Photographic Journals  -  Trade Directories  -  Books  -  etc.  Thanks to all who have encouraged and supported me in creating the EdinPhoto web site  -  including descendants of photographers  -  researchers  -  providers of photographs and other material  Background notes on the research thal led up to the creation of this site  -   together with lists of new material added to the site since its launch.  Brief comments on how this site might be used  -  Just browsing?  -  Seeking specific information?  Please add your questions, suggestions or other comments to the Guest Book.  Links to other web sites  -  Photographic Societies  -  Photographic History  -  Family History  -  etc.  Click here to find the link to the Edinburgh Photogrpahic Society web site.

 

A selection of my photographs, many from Edinburgh throughout the year.   Also photos from Scotland, London, Iceland, Italy, Hong Kong and elsewhere     Many old maps of Edinburgh (Old Town, New Town, while City), Leith and Newhaven.  Includes several old transport maps and a comparison of old maps with recent aerial photos.   Old engravings, mailly of Edinburgh scenes.  Some from the 1820s, some from the 1890s,  some others - includes many hand-coloured examples from the 1820s.   News from Edinburgh today  -  Events, Collections, Buildings and Gardens, Transport   This site includes     1. Post card portraits taken in studios in Edinburgh:    2. Post card views either takeen/published by Ediburgh photographers or views of Edinburgh, or both.y Edinburgh    Views of Edinburgh, grouped into three sections:     1. Street views:    2. Buildings:    3. Around Edinburgh   Views of transport around Edinburgh  -  Horse drawn trams and buses, cable cars, electric trams, buses and a few railway photos.  Also several maps of Edinburgh's bus and tram routes.   Links to pages with Photos of Groups   Frequently Asked Questions

  Summary of the updates added to this site each month since the site was launched   Links to Dumbiedykes pages  Link to Granton pages  Link to Leith pages   Link to Newhaven pages   Links to Portobello pages   Link to My Recent Talks