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Photographs and Other Images  -  These include portraits of photographers  -  photographic outings -  Princes Street views  -  Newhaven Fishwives  -  etc.  Early Photography in Edinburgh  -  Talbot, Brewster, Hill & Adamson, Early Professional Photographers in Princes Street, etc.  Professional Photographers in Edinburgh  -  1840 to 1940  -  Their names, dates of business and studio addresses.  The Photographic Society of Scotland  -  1856 to 1873  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, etc.  The History of Edinburgh Photographic Society  -  1861 to date  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, Poems, etc.  EPS Publications - EPS Handwritten Records  -  Photographic Journals  -  Trade Directories  -  Books  -  etc.  Thanks to all who have encouraged and supported me in creating the EdinPhoto web site  -  including descendants of photogrpahers  -  researchers  -  providers of photographs and other material  Background notes on the research thal led up to the creation of this site  -   together with lists of new material added to the site since its launch.  Brief comments on how this site might be used  -  Just browsing?  -  Seeking specific information?  Please add your questions, suggestions or other comments to the Guest Book.  Links to other web sites  -  Photographic Societies  -  Photographic History  -  Family History  -  etc.  Click here to find the link to the Edinburgh Photogrpahic Society web site.  Details of who owns the copyright of photographs and other mateiral on this web site.

A selection of my photographs, many from Edinburgh throughout the year.   Also photos from Scotland, London, Iceland, Italy, Hong Kong and elsewhere    Many old maps of Edinburgh (Old Town, New Town, while City), Leith and Newhaven.  Includes several old transport maps and a comparison of old maps with recent aerial photos.   Old engravings, mailly of Edinburgh scenes.  Some from the 1820s, some from the 1890s,  some others - includes many hand-coloured examples from the 1820s.   News from Edinburgh today  -  Events, Collections, Buildings and Gardens, Transport   This site includes     1. Post card portraits taken in studios in Edinburgh:    2. Post card views either takeen/published by Ediburgh photographers or views of Edinburgh, or both.y Edinburgh    Views of Edinburgh, grouped into three sections:     1. Street views:    2. Buildings:    3. Around Edinburgh   Views of transport around Edinburgh  -  Horse drawn trams and buses, cable cars, electric trams, buses and a few railway photos.  Also several maps of Edinburgh's bus and tram routes.   Summary of the updates added to this site each month since the site was launched   Frequently Asked Questions

 

 

Ethnographic Photography in Scotland

1

Early History of
Photography

Page 1

Further Notes

2

Types of Camera and  Photo

Page 2

Further Notes

3

Photographic
Societies

Page 3

Further Notes

4

Professional
Photographers

Page 4

Further Notes

5

Collections of Photos and Books

Page 5

Further Notes

Other talks:    Ethnographic Postcards in Scotland

Other talks:    History of Photography

 

Edinburgh University, School of Literature, Language and Cultures, Celtic and Scottish Studies

2nd Year Lecture:  February 22, 2010  -  Ethnographic Photography

 

Ethnographic Photography  -  Page 3

 

Ethnographic Photography in Scotland

Photographic Societies

and their Photos

 

_________________________________

Here, we look at

1.  The Edinburgh Calotype Club  -  early 1840s

2.  Photographic Society of Scotland  -  1856 to 1873

3.  Edinburgh Photographic Society  -  1861 to date

_________________________________

1.

Edinburgh Calotype Club

Early 1840s

  • A group of legal men from Edinburgh visited Sir David Brewster in St Andrews in the early-1840s.  They then formed the Edinburgh Calotype Club.  It was the first photographic society in the world.

  • Two Calotype Albums have survived from the Edinburgh Calotype Club.  One is held by the National Library of Scotland and the other by the Edinburgh Room at Edinburgh Central Library.

  • Here are a few of the photos in the Calotype Albums

Hugh Lyon Playfair with Cello

Photograph from Edinburgh Calotype Club album -  Volume 2, Page 31  -  Hugh Lyon Playfair with Cello  

©  Reproduced with acknowledgement to the Trustees of the National Library of Scotland

  • George Heriot's Hospital

    Photograph from Edinburgh Calotype Album  -  Volume 2, Page 26  -  George Heriot's Hospital  

    ©  Reproduced with acknowledgement to the Trustees of the National Library of Scotland

    Dean Orphanage

    Photograph from Edinburgh Calotype Club album  -  Volume 2, Page 35  -  Dean Orphanage

    ©  Reproduced with acknowledgement to the Trustees of the National Library of Scotland

    Holy Trinity Church  -  Dean Bridge

    Photograph from Edinburgh Calotype Album  -  Volume 2, Page 11  -  Holy Trinity Church, Dean Bridge

    ©  Reproduced with acknowledgement to the Trustees of the National Library of Scotland

    Head of West Bow

    near the top of the 'Royal Mile' and Edinburgh Castle

    Photograph in Edinburgh Calotype Club album  -  Volume 2, Page 29  -  Head of West Bow

    ©  Reproduced with acknowledgement to the Trustees of the National Library of Scotland

 

 

_______________________________

2.

Photographic Society

 of Scotland

From 1856

Background

  • The Great Exhibition was held in the Crystal Palace at Hyde Park, London, in 1851.  It included a Photography Section with examples of the recently invented collodion process.  This opened up photography to a wider public.

  • Over the next few years, photographic societies opened in various cities around Britain, including:
                                          -  Leeds
                   1852
                                          -  London *          1853
                                          -  Liverpool         1853
                                          -  Manchester    1855
                                          -  Edinburgh **  1856
     

    *    This society became the Royal Photographic Society

    **  This society was named
    The Photographic Society of Scotland.

    Outings

    • Both Professional and Amateur photographers joined the Photographic Society of Scotland.  Many of the latter were wealthy.

    • Prince Albert became Patron of the PSS.

    • Sir David Brewster became President.

    • Horatio Ross became Vice President

    • The society held lectures, exhibitions and photographic outings.  Here is one of their outings to Craigmillar Castle.  Note the large cameras and top hats.

    PSS Outing  -  1856

    Stereo Pair of Photographs  -  PSS Outing 1856

  • Sir David Brewster

    Calotype by Hill & Adamson

    Sir David Brewster  -  a calotype by Hill & Adamson

    ©  Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh City Libraries and Information Services

  •  Brewster was born in Jedburgh in 1787

  •  Attended Edinburgh University from the age of 12

  •  Awarded an Arts Degree by Edinburgh University in 1800

  •  Became editor of the Edinburgh Magazine, later Scots Magazine, aged 20.

  •  Editor of Encyclopaedia Britannica for 22 years

  •  President of Photographic Society of Scotland from 1856

  •  President of Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1864

  •  Principal of Edinburgh  University, from age 78 until his death, 9 years later.

Horatio Ross

Self portrait, preparing a collodion plate

Horatio Ross  -  Amateur photographer

  • Horatio Ross was born in 1801.

  • Named after his godfather, Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson.

  • He was a wealthy landowner.

  • 1832-34: MP for Arbroath.

  • Won the first steeplechase on record.

  • Represented Scotland at shooting.

  • He once walked from the Dee to Inverness, 97 miles without stopping

  • Horatio Ross and his wife were both photographers.  Here are some photos taken by his wife in the Scottish Highlands.  These seem to me to give a good impression of hunting and fishing in the Scottish Highlands.

Waiting

Photograph by Mrs Horatio Ross?

Photograph from the family of Horatio Ross  -  Hunting and Shooting in the Scottish Highlands  -  Bridge

© Reproduced with permission of Stephen Beadle

The Scottish Highlands

Photograph possibly by Mrs Horatio Ross?

Photograph from the family of Horatio Ross  - Fishing and Hunting in the Scottish Highlands

© Reproduced with permission of Stephen Beadle

The Scottish Highlands

Photograph by Mrs Horatio Ross?

Photograph from the family of Horatio Ross  -  Hunting and Shooting in the Scottish Highlands  -  Man, boy and dog

© Reproduced with permission of Christies Images Limited, London

The Scottish Highlands

Photograph possibly by Mrs Horatio Ross?

Photograph from the family of Horatio Ross  - Crossing the river in the Scottish Highlands

© Reproduced with permission of Stephen Beadle

________________________________

PSS Exhibitions

  • Their first PSS exhibition in 1856 attracted 1,050 prints and 8,000 visitors.

Press Reports

  • Press reports show how the public and the press still regarded photography with some astonishment, even seventeen years after its discovery.

  • Here are some extracts from press:

"Another Exhibition has opened to delight our pleasure-loving Auld Reekieites who are noted as dillettántí and Fine-Art rhapsodists.

Photography already appears scarcely less marvellous than the electric telegraph." 

[Caledonian Mercury  22 December 1856]

"This is a most extraordinary exhibition; and we suspect that very few persons, if any, who have not visited it can have the most remote idea of the immense progress which Photography (or Sun Painting, as some term it) has made during the last few years." 

 [The Edinburgh Evening Reporter & Scottish Record  -  Dec 31, 1856]

  • The Courant included some poetry when it commented on the exhibition!

 Old Sol had scarcely spoken thus, when forth I went straightway

   To his Great Exhibition-Room, my shilling there to pay;

   And scarcely had I passed the door, and laid my money down

   When I exclaimed  'A shilling’s worth!  Why this is worth a crown.'

   He really is a painter!  His own account is true.

   I only wish we saw him here far oft’ner than we do.”

     [The Courant  22 January 1857]

  • The Daily Scotsman also include a poem:

 But even such a favoured street acquires a new renown,

   And gives a brighter lustre to that corner of the town.

   When day by day both grave and gay are thither seen to run

   With eager anxious haste to seek the Temple of the Sun.”

     [The Daily Scotsman:  31 January 1857]

Photos for Sale

  • Some of the exhibitors offered to sell copies of the prints that they exhibited.  In the 1856 PSS Exhibition:

-  George Washington Wilson sold 40 prints at 10d each  (equivalent to £4 each now).

-  Henry Peach Robinson sold 57 prints at prices ranging from
 3 shillings to 15 shillings each (equivalent to £14 to £70 each now).

Composition Pictures

  • Henry Peach Robinson composition pictures - i.e. pictures that used multiple negatives to create the images that he wanted.  Here are some of his results:

'Fading Away'

Copies on sale at 15s 0d each in 3rd PSS Annual Exhibition

Fading Away  -  Henry Peach Robinson

©  The Royal Photographic Society, Bath, England.  web site http://www.rps.org.

Here They Come

Winner of Silver Medal in 4th PSS Annual Exhibition

  Here They Come  -  Henry Peach Robinson

©  Reproduced by courtesy of Margaret Halket, West Sussex

'Somebody's Coming'

Winner of Silver Medal in 8th PSS Annual Exhibition

Photograph by HP Robinson - Winner of a Silver Medal in the Photographic Society of Scotland's 8th Annual Exhibition

©  Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh Photographic Society

  • Henry Peach Robinson won many Medals for his photography - and he let people know about them by adding them to his notepaper:

Letter from H P Robinson.

Letter from H P Robinson to Edinburgh Photographic Society, thanking EPS for the Medal awarded to him at the 1876 Exhibition.

©  Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh Photographic Society

Two Ways of Life

O G Rejlander

  • Rejlander is another photographer who produced composition pictures.  Here is one that he sent to a Photographic Society of Scotland's Second Exhibition, held in 1857.

Two Ways of Life  -  Oscar Gustav Rejlander

©  The Royal Photographic Society, Bath, England.  web site http://www.rps.org.

'Two Ways of Life'

Controversy

  • Composition pictures (where several different negatives were used to make a print) were somewhat controversial in the 1850s, some photographers believing them to be 'cheating'.

  • But this photo, produced from 32 negatives by OG Rejlander and submitted to the Photographic Society of Scotland's 1857 Exhibition, was more controversial than most.

  • O G Rejlander considered his photography to be Fine Art, and his photo had been highly praised when exhibited in Manchester.

  • However, the PSS Hanging Committee declined it because of its semi-nude female figures.

Press Comment

  • The Daily Express was vexed with the decision and wrote:

“O G Rejlander's ‘Two Ways of Life’ was exhibited in the Art Treasures Exhibition in Manchester.  The Prince Consort has three copies of it.

 Sir David Brewster, the President has one copy.  It will scarcely be credited that the amateur ‘hanging committee’ of PSS rejected it because there were half-draped female figures in it.

Call at Mr Wood’s, 88 Princes Street, where the rejected photograph may be seen.”

  • A compromise may have been reached.  I have read a report that the picture was displayed with one half hidden behind a draped cloth, though I'm not sure where it was on display in this way.

The Outcome

  • Professional photographers tried for more representation on the 'Hanging Committee', but were not successful, so they began to hold their own informal meetings.

  • In 1861, together with a number of amateur photographers, they formed Edinburgh Photographic Society.  The earlier society, The Photographic Society of Scotland, then began to go into decline

RPS Competition

  • Incidentally, the Royal Photographic Society held a competition in 2009, inviting entrants to create a modern equivalent of Rejlander's 'Two Ways of Life'.

  • This was the winning entry, submitted by Dan Ponting who graduated from Bath Spa University in 2008.  Dan used himself as the model throughout his picture.  He used Photoshop to put the different elements of the picture together, and titled it 'Self(ish) Characters'.

  • Here are 'Two Ways of Life' and 'Self(ish) Characters'

    1857

    Two Ways of Life  -  Oscar Gustav Rejlander

    ©  The Royal Photographic Society, Bath, England.  web site http://www.rps.org.

    2009

    A photograph by Dan Ponting entitled 'Self(ish) Characters'  -  a modern equivalent of OG Rejlander's '1857 photograph 'Two Ways of Life'

    ©  Dan Ponting.  web site www.danponting.com

________________________________

3.

Edinburgh

Photographic Society

See also 'Further Notes'

1861 to date

Members

  • Both amateur and professional photographers soon joined EPS.

  • The EPS Secretary read a paper in 1867, in which he said.

    “In a good working society, there should be a thorough admixture
    of different classes of the community among the Members, such as:

    -  professionals

    -  working amateurs of all ranks

    -  others calling themselves amateurs who may have only
     a general hankering after photographic pursuits.” 

    “Ornamental Members, useful from their position and influence in giving a certain status to a society, not to be despised, and in assisting to augment the funds.”

    Photos by a few EPS Members

Alexander Ayton  -  Group Photos

  •  Alexander Ayton, who was later to become EPS President, took many group photos.  Here are three of them:

Australian and Scottish Cricket Teams

Photograph of a Cricket Team by Alex Ayton  -  Which team, and when was the photograph taken?

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

 Alex Ayton's Wife, Catherine and 8 of her children

Alexander Ayton's wife and eight of his children

© The Ayton family.  Reproduced with acknowledgement to
Elizabeth Trubuhovich
 (great-granddaughter of Alexander Ayton). 
Also husband Ron, sister Alison and niece Christine.

Photographic Convention

Edinburgh  -  1892

 

Photograph of delegates to the Photographic Convention of the United Kingdom held in Dublin in 1894

©  Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh Photographic Society

 

Photograph of delegates to the Photographic Convention of the United Kingdom held inEdinburgh in 1892

©  Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh Photographic Society

___________________________________________________

John Moffat

  • The Edinburgh professional photographer, John Moffat, who had a studio in Princes Street from 1853 was elected EPS President in 1892.

  • John Moffat  -  Professional photographer

    ©  Reproduced by courtesy of John Moffat, formerly of Eastbourne.

  • Here are some of his photos:

Talbot by Moffat

Taken at Moffat's Princes Street Studio, Edinburgh, 1864
following a meeting at Photographic Society of Scotland

Photograph of Talbot taken by John Moffat in 1864

©  Reproduced from the National Museum of Photography, Film and Television collection,
by courtesy of the Science and Society Picture Library.

Gladstone by Moffat

Mr & Mrs Gladstone on Mr Binko's Electric Railway  -  1884

Mr & Mrs Gladstone in Mr Binko's Electric Railway

©  Reproduced by courtesy of Trevor ER Yerbury, Edinburgh

Robert Louis Stevenson by Moffat

 Aged 3

Photograph by Moffat  -  Robert Louis Stevenson  -  Aged 3

©  Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh City Libraries and Information Services

 Aged 7

Photograph by Moffat  -  Robert Louis Stevenson, aged 7

©  Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh City Libraries and Information Services

 Aged 15

Photograph by Moffat  -  Robert Louis Stevenson, aged 15

©  Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh City Libraries and Information Services

 Aged 20

Photograph by Moffat  -  Robert Louis Stevenson  -   Aged 20

©  Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh City Libraries and Information Services

_________________________________________________

Archibald MacLucas

  • Archibald MacLucas was a member of EPS for many years.  He was elected EPS President in 1917, 1941, 1946 and 1954.  He became known as 'The Grand Old Man of EPS'.

As a young man

Archibald Hugh MacLucas  -  As a Young Man

©  Reproduced by courtesy of the MacLucas family

In later years

Archibald H MacLucas

©  Reproduced by courtesy of the MacLucas family

  • Here are some photos that he took of his son, Norman:

Newspaper Seller

Photograph by AH MacLucas of his son Norman - paper seller 1

©  Reproduced by courtesy of the MacLucas family

Newspaper Seller

Photograph by AH MacLucas of his son Norman-  Paper Seller 2

©  Reproduced by courtesy of the MacLucas family

Flower Seller

Photograph by AH MacLucas of his son Norman - Flower Seller

©  Reproduced by courtesy of the MacLucas family

Boot Cleaner

Photograph by AH MacLucas of his son Norman - Boot Cleaner

©  Reproduced by courtesy of the MacLucas family

________________________________________________

Photographic Outings

  • EPS arranged photographic outings, travelling by train, cycle, boat, barge and other transport.

  • The press reported in the 1880s:

- EPS organises frequent camera excursions and a grand annual picnic.

- On this occasion the whole of the photographic establishments are closed and amateur and professional employer and employé meet together and have a right good time.

- Games included sack and barrow races, three-leg race, battledore, quoits and a walking backwards race."

  • The photographic journals reported that in 1883:

    -  A Party of 109 travelled on a decorated barge with a couple of violins, ’cello and piano, dances and song.

    -  On the outward journey, there was a solo singing competition with seven lady competitors, the prize being a 10” x 8” portrait in carbon of the winner (presented by Mr Balmain).

    -  The bachelors won the Tug of War between married and single.

    -  There was music and dancing for 3 to 4 hours on the barge for the return journey.”

  • Here are photos of some of their outings:

Cadzow Forest - 1877.

EPS Outing to Cadzow Forest (close-up)  -  1877

©  This photograph is included with  National Galleries of Scotland permission.   See Copyright Conditions

Blackford Glen - 1890

EPS Outing to Blackford Glen  -  1890  -  Photograoher Inglis

©  This photograph is included with  National Galleries of Scotland permission.   See Copyright Conditions

Edinburgh Zoo - Around.1964

Edinburgh Photographic Society - Beginners' Portfolio Group Outing to Edinburgh Zoo

©  Reproduced with acknowledgement to  Edinburgh Photographic Society

________________________________________________

Exhibitions

  • EPS has held annual exhibitions since 1861.  Photos have been selected by a panel of photographers and sometimes artists.  The first Exhibition, in 1861, when EPS was only six weeks old, included more than 700 prints.

  • Now, up to 4,000 prints are received annually, from which about 200 are selected and hung on the walls.

  • Here are the selectors for the 1936 exhibition at work.  They included the artist Tom Curr on the right.

  • 1936 Open Exhibition

    Judges: Alexander Highly,  J Campbell Harper,  Tom Curr

    Judges for the Edinburgh Open Exhibition of Photography, 1936

    © Reproduced with acknowledgement to Sandy Brewer, Galloway, Scotland  -  Sandy is currently researching the work of Tom Curr

  • Tom Curr was a strong supporter of the Boys' Brigade and Girls' Live Brigade movements.  Here are a couple of his religious paintings:

'Follow Me'

Religious painting by Tom Curr  -  'Follow Me'  -  A painting of Jesus against a backdrop of Edinburgh

©  The Curr Family.  This image is from a 1930s reproduction, exact date to be determined.

Reproduced with acknowledgement to Dr Sandy Brewer, Galloway, SW Scotland

'Jesus in Edinburgh'

Painting by Tom Curr  -  'Jesus in Edinburgh'

©  The Curr Family.  Reproduced with acknowledgement
to Dr Sandy Brewer, Galloway, SW Scotland

 

________________________________

End of Page 3

 

Ethnographic Photography in Scotland

1

Early History of
Photography

Page 1

Further Notes

2

Types of Camera and  Photo

Page 2

Further Notes

3

Photographic
Societies

Page 3

Further Notes

4

Professional
Photographers

Page 4

Further Notes

5

Collections of Photos and Books

Page 5

Further Notes

Other talks:    Ethnographic Postcards in Scotland

Other talks:    History of Photography

 

 

Links to Other Pages

EdinPhoto - Home Page      Please send me an e-mail ...  with your questions, comments, suggestions or news.      At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.            At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.

Photographs and Other Images  -  These include portraits of photographers  -  photographic outings -  Princes Street views  -  Newhaven Fishwives  -  etc.  Early Photography in Edinburgh  -  Talbot, Brewster, Hill & Adamson, Early Professional Photographers in Princes Street, etc.  Professional Photographers in Edinburgh  -  1840 to 1940  -  Their names, dates of business and studio addresses.  The Photographic Society of Scotland  -  1856 to 1873  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, etc.  The History of Edinburgh Photographic Society  -  1861 to date  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, Poems, etc.  EPS Publications - EPS Handwritten Records  -  Photographic Journals  -  Trade Directories  -  Books  -  etc.  Thanks to all who have encouraged and supported me in creating the EdinPhoto web site  -  including descendants of photogrpahers  -  researchers  -  providers of photographs and other material  Background notes on the research thal led up to the creation of this site  -   together with lists of new material added to the site since its launch.  Brief comments on how this site might be used  -  Just browsing?  -  Seeking specific information?  Please add your questions, suggestions or other comments to the Guest Book.  Links to other web sites  -  Photographic Societies  -  Photographic History  -  Family History  -  etc.  Click here to find the link to the Edinburgh Photogrpahic Society web site.  Details of who owns the copyright of photographs and other mateiral on this web site.

A selection of my photographs, many from Edinburgh throughout the year.   Also photos from Scotland, London, Iceland, Italy, Hong Kong and elsewhere    Many old maps of Edinburgh (Old Town, New Town, while City), Leith and Newhaven.  Includes several old transport maps and a comparison of old maps with recent aerial photos.   Old engravings, mailly of Edinburgh scenes.  Some from the 1820s, some from the 1890s,  some others - includes many hand-coloured examples from the 1820s.   News from Edinburgh today  -  Events, Collections, Buildings and Gardens, Transport   This site includes     1. Post card portraits taken in studios in Edinburgh:    2. Post card views either takeen/published by Ediburgh photographers or views of Edinburgh, or both.y Edinburgh    Views of Edinburgh, grouped into three sections:     1. Street views:    2. Buildings:    3. Around Edinburgh   Views of transport around Edinburgh  -  Horse drawn trams and buses, cable cars, electric trams, buses and a few railway photos.  Also several maps of Edinburgh's bus and tram routes.   Summary of the updates added to this site each month since the site was launched   Frequently Asked Questions

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