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EdinPhoto - Home Page      Please send me an e-mail ...  with your questions, comments, suggestions or news.      At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.            At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.

Photographs and Other Images  -  These include portraits of photographers  -  photographic outings -  Princes Street views  -  Newhaven Fishwives  -  etc.  Early Photography in Edinburgh  -  Talbot, Brewster, Hill & Adamson, Early Professional Photographers in Princes Street, etc.  Professional Photographers in Edinburgh  -  1840 to 1940  -  Their names, dates of business and studio addresses.  The Photographic Society of Scotland  -  1856 to 1873  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, etc.  The History of Edinburgh Photographic Society  -  1861 to date  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, Poems, etc.  EPS Publications - EPS Handwritten Records  -  Photographic Journals  -  Trade Directories  -  Books  -  etc.  Thanks to all who have encouraged and supported me in creating the EdinPhoto web site  -  including descendants of photogrpahers  -  researchers  -  providers of photographs and other material  Background notes on the research thal led up to the creation of this site  -   together with lists of new material added to the site since its launch.  Brief comments on how this site might be used  -  Just browsing?  -  Seeking specific information?  Please add your questions, suggestions or other comments to the Guest Book.  Links to other web sites  -  Photographic Societies  -  Photographic History  -  Family History  -  etc.  Click here to find the link to the Edinburgh Photogrpahic Society web site.  Details of who owns the copyright of photographs and other mateiral on this web site.

A selection of my photographs, many from Edinburgh throughout the year.   Also photos from Scotland, London, Iceland, Italy, Hong Kong and elsewhere    Many old maps of Edinburgh (Old Town, New Town, while City), Leith and Newhaven.  Includes several old transport maps and a comparison of old maps with recent aerial photos.   Old engravings, mailly of Edinburgh scenes.  Some from the 1820s, some from the 1890s,  some others - includes many hand-coloured examples from the 1820s.   News from Edinburgh today  -  Events, Collections, Buildings and Gardens, Transport   This site includes     1. Post card portraits taken in studios in Edinburgh:    2. Post card views either takeen/published by Ediburgh photographers or views of Edinburgh, or both.y Edinburgh    Views of Edinburgh, grouped into three sections:     1. Street views:    2. Buildings:    3. Around Edinburgh   Views of transport around Edinburgh  -  Horse drawn trams and buses, cable cars, electric trams, buses and a few railway photos.  Also several maps of Edinburgh's bus and tram routes.   Summary of the updates added to this site each month since the site was launched   Frequently Asked Questions

 

 

Ethnographic Photography and Postcards

Scotland

1

Early History of
Photography

Page 1

2

Types of Camera and  Photo

Page 2

3

Photographic
Societies

Page 3

4

Professional
Photographers

Page 4

5

Collections of Photos and Books

Page 5

Ethnographic Photography in Scotland

Ethnographic Postcards in Scotland

History of Photography

 

Edinburgh University, School of Literature, Language and Cultures, Celtic and Scottish Studies

2nd Year Lecture:  February 22, 2010  -  Ethnographic Photography

 

Ethnographic Photography  -  Page 2  -  Further Notes

 

Ethnographic Photography in Scotland

Types of Camera

and

Types of Photo

 

Further Notes

 

Daguerreotype

    Daguerreotype 1  -  Photographer not named

  • The image on the plate was very delicate so was covered with glass for protection.

  • Colour was added to some Daguerreotypes.  This was a delicate process.  Masks were cut for the shape of each colour.  Then the artist would gently sprinkle a little finely ground colour and breath on the surface to make the colour adhere.

  • Collodion Negatives

  • In 1851 Frederick Scott Archer announced the Collodion process and made it freely available to photographers. This produced a negative image on glass
    (Both the Calotype and Daguerreotype processes had been covered by patents in England and Wales - but not in Scotland!)

Albumen Prints

  • Prints, in the 1850s, would normally be made as 'contact prints' - i.e. the print would be the same size as the negative, so to get a large print, the photographer needed a large glass plate and a lot of chemicals and a large camera.

  • Here are examples of a carte de visite and a cabinet print.

Stereo Views

  • Stereo views became popular in the 1850s.   There is a man standing in front of the statue in the right-hand image, but he cannot be seen in the left-hand image.  So the photograph appears to have been taken by a camera that had a single lens.

    Duke of Wellington Statue

    An early pair of Stereo photos by an unidentified photographer  -  Register House

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Photogravure  Prints

Photogravure

Thomas Annan

Photogravure by James Craig Annan, taken from Thomas Annan's photographs of the Old Closes and Streets og Glasgow

  Reproduced with acknowledgement to Fine Art Dealer Paul Cava

  • There was movement towards more artistic photography in the 1890s.  Some prominent members of the Royal Photographic Society broke away from the RPS to form the The Linked Ring in 1892.  They produced photos that they believed went beyond the scientific and had artistic merit.  Many of these by Henry Peach Robinson, J Craig Annan and others were reproduced as high quality photogravure prints in Alfred Stieglitz' journal, Camera Work, between 1903 and 1917.

  • Here are some examples of photogravure photos - views of 'Old Closes and Streets of Glasgow' taken by Thomas Annan, the father of James Craig Annan in the late 1860s, then reproduced as photogravures in 1900.  These were produced to make a documentary record of the closes that were soon to be demolished, but the photos have a pictorial quality.

From 1880

Amateur Photographers

  • With photography becoming easier, the number of photographers and number of photographic societies throughout Britain increased.

  • Here are a couple of adverts for cameras sold by Lizars (now Black & Lizars) of Shandwick Place, Edinburgh about a hundred years ago:

    Advert 1

    Lizars Advert  -  May 1913

      Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh Photographic Society

    Advert 2

    Lizars Advert  -  November 1911

      Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh Photographic Society

Cameras and Film

  • There were now more photographers throughout Britain than there had been in the 19th century.  But photography, including the materials, could be costly and there were still many people who had no camera and relied on trips to Jeromes to get their photos taken for birthdays and other occasions.

  • The Autochrome process for colour photography became available in 1907, but was not widely used.   Kodachrome introduced their first colour film in 1935 but it was very slow (only 6 ASA).  However, the speed was increased and Kodachrome continued to be sold until 2009.

  • There have been many changes in cameras and film since 1920:

  • Large format cameras, with large plates, were used by the press for most of the 20th Century, but are now largely seen.

  • Medium format film cameras (i.e. taking 120 size film) were popular until very recently with studio photographers and other professional photographers, but now most professionals seem to have accepted that they can get at least as good results with professional digital cameras.

  • Cameras with folding bellows were popular with keen photographers in the first half of the 20th century, but these photographers were likely to move on to 35mm SLR (single lens reflex) cameras with their inter-changeable lenses around the 1950s/60s then on to digital SLR cameras in the early 2000s.

 

Plates, Negatives, Prints

Chart giving a comparison of the sizes of some glass plates, negatives and prints.

  Copyright: Peter Stubbs  -   please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

 

  • Many more features have been added to SLR cameras over the years - split screen focus, auto-focus, motor drive, programme mode, auto-bracketing, TTL flash, etc.  Even an 'entry-level' digital SLR now has many more features than a 'top-of-the-range' SLR had a couple of decades ago.

  • At the other end of the range, disk cameras with their miniature film size were introduced in 1982, but discontinued in 1999.

  • Instant photo cameras were introduced by Polaroid in 1963, but with the advent of digital cameras, Polaroid 'instant pictures' no longer have the same appeal.  Polaroid recently discontinued making their film.

  • Disposable cameras using 35mm film and cheap plastic lenses have been sold by Fuji since 1986 and by Kodak since 1988.  They are easy to use and inexpensive.  They are now often left on the tables at weddings so that guests can capture their own images of the event.

 

 

___________________________________

End of Page 1

 

Ethnographic Photography and Postcards

Scotland

1

Early History of
Photography

Page 1

2

Types of Camera and  Photo

Page 2

3

Photographic
Societies

Page 3

4

Professional
Photographers

Page 4

5

Collections of Photos and Books

Page 5

Ethnographic Photography in Scotland

Ethnographic Postcards in Scotland

History of Photography

 

Links to Other Pages

EdinPhoto - Home Page      Please send me an e-mail ...  with your questions, comments, suggestions or news.      At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.            At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.

Photographs and Other Images  -  These include portraits of photographers  -  photographic outings -  Princes Street views  -  Newhaven Fishwives  -  etc.  Early Photography in Edinburgh  -  Talbot, Brewster, Hill & Adamson, Early Professional Photographers in Princes Street, etc.  Professional Photographers in Edinburgh  -  1840 to 1940  -  Their names, dates of business and studio addresses.  The Photographic Society of Scotland  -  1856 to 1873  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, etc.  The History of Edinburgh Photographic Society  -  1861 to date  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, Poems, etc.  EPS Publications - EPS Handwritten Records  -  Photographic Journals  -  Trade Directories  -  Books  -  etc.  Thanks to all who have encouraged and supported me in creating the EdinPhoto web site  -  including descendants of photogrpahers  -  researchers  -  providers of photographs and other material  Background notes on the research thal led up to the creation of this site  -   together with lists of new material added to the site since its launch.  Brief comments on how this site might be used  -  Just browsing?  -  Seeking specific information?  Please add your questions, suggestions or other comments to the Guest Book.  Links to other web sites  -  Photographic Societies  -  Photographic History  -  Family History  -  etc.  Click here to find the link to the Edinburgh Photogrpahic Society web site.  Details of who owns the copyright of photographs and other mateiral on this web site.

A selection of my photographs, many from Edinburgh throughout the year.   Also photos from Scotland, London, Iceland, Italy, Hong Kong and elsewhere    Many old maps of Edinburgh (Old Town, New Town, while City), Leith and Newhaven.  Includes several old transport maps and a comparison of old maps with recent aerial photos.   Old engravings, mailly of Edinburgh scenes.  Some from the 1820s, some from the 1890s,  some others - includes many hand-coloured examples from the 1820s.   News from Edinburgh today  -  Events, Collections, Buildings and Gardens, Transport   This site includes     1. Post card portraits taken in studios in Edinburgh:    2. Post card views either takeen/published by Ediburgh photographers or views of Edinburgh, or both.y Edinburgh    Views of Edinburgh, grouped into three sections:     1. Street views:    2. Buildings:    3. Around Edinburgh   Views of transport around Edinburgh  -  Horse drawn trams and buses, cable cars, electric trams, buses and a few railway photos.  Also several maps of Edinburgh's bus and tram routes.   Summary of the updates added to this site each month since the site was launched   Frequently Asked Questions

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