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Photographs and Other Images  -  These include portraits of photographers  -  photographic outings -  Princes Street views  -  Newhaven Fishwives  -  etc.  Early Photography in Edinburgh  -  Talbot, Brewster, Hill & Adamson, Early Professional Photographers in Princes Street, etc.  Professional Photographers in Edinburgh  -  1840 to 1940  -  Their names, dates of business and studio addresses.  The Photographic Society of Scotland  -  1856 to 1873  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, etc.  The History of Edinburgh Photographic Society  -  1861 to date  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, Poems, etc.  EPS Publications - EPS Handwritten Records  -  Photographic Journals  -  Trade Directories  -  Books  -  etc.  Thanks to all who have encouraged and supported me in creating the EdinPhoto web site  -  including descendants of photogrpahers  -  researchers  -  providers of photographs and other material  Background notes on the research thal led up to the creation of this site  -   together with lists of new material added to the site since its launch.  Brief comments on how this site might be used  -  Just browsing?  -  Seeking specific information?  Please add your questions, suggestions or other comments to the Guest Book.  Links to other web sites  -  Photographic Societies  -  Photographic History  -  Family History  -  etc.  Click here to find the link to the Edinburgh Photogrpahic Society web site.  Details of who owns the copyright of photographs and other mateiral on this web site.

A selection of my photographs, many from Edinburgh throughout the year.   Also photos from Scotland, London, Iceland, Italy, Hong Kong and elsewhere    Many old maps of Edinburgh (Old Town, New Town, while City), Leith and Newhaven.  Includes several old transport maps and a comparison of old maps with recent aerial photos.   Old engravings, mailly of Edinburgh scenes.  Some from the 1820s, some from the 1890s,  some others - includes many hand-coloured examples from the 1820s.   News from Edinburgh today  -  Events, Collections, Buildings and Gardens, Transport   This site includes     1. Post card portraits taken in studios in Edinburgh:    2. Post card views either takeen/published by Ediburgh photographers or views of Edinburgh, or both.y Edinburgh    Views of Edinburgh, grouped into three sections:     1. Street views:    2. Buildings:    3. Around Edinburgh   Views of transport around Edinburgh  -  Horse drawn trams and buses, cable cars, electric trams, buses and a few railway photos.  Also several maps of Edinburgh's bus and tram routes.   Summary of the updates added to this site each month since the site was launched   Frequently Asked Questions

 

 

Sizes of Photographs

Enlargements were not a feature of early photographic processes.  The size of the final photo was the same as that of the negative or photographic plate.

Ambrotypes and Tintypes

Ambrotypes and Tintypes would usually be a fraction of a whole-plate glass size. 

Tintype sizes (inches):

Full-plate

6" x 8"

Half-plate

4" x 5" (See NOTE below)

1/4 plate

3 1/8" x 4 1/8"(See NOTE below)

1/6 plate

2 " x 3 "  (to be confirmed)

1/9 plate

2" x 2 "

1/16 plate

1 5/8" x 2 1/8"

Gem

" x 1"

NOTE: The sizes quoted above for half-plate and quarter-plate are a little different from 'normal' glass plate sizes.  I don't know why. 

Half-plate and whole plate sizes for glass plates are the appropriate proportions of whole-plate.  i.e.

-  6.5 ins x 4.25 ins (half-plate)

-  4.25 ins x 3.25 ins (quarter-plate)

from 1850s

Small

The smaller tintype photos that I have seen are

1 " x 2 " and

" x 1"

In both cases, they have been mounted on trade cards 4 x 2 ins.

Large

I have also received an email from a collector in London who has a photograph of a young girl with dress, ear rings and rings painted over the original photo. 

It is a tintype measuring 13 ins x 10 ins.

Boudoir Prints

8.5 ins x 5.25 ins

from when?

Cabinet Prints

Portraits

In the 19th century, studio portraits were usually produced as either cartes de visite (the smaller size) or cabinet prints (the larger size).

Prices for multiple copies were affordable and 19th century photograph albums were usually designed so that these sizes of photo could be slotted into them.

Size

Cabinet prints were 5.5 ins x 4 ins photos mounted on cards 6.5 x 4.25 ins. with the photographer's name and address on the back of the card (or occasionally below the photo on the front of the card.

Here are some examples of cabinet print portraits

from 1866

Cabinet size

Views

Cabinet size views were 8ins x 6 ins.  They were collected and mounted in albums in the 19th century.  Albums can still be found, often containing views by Valentine of Dundee and George Washington Wilson of Aberdeen.

Valentine sold their cabinet size views for a shilling (0.05) each.  [Roddy Simpson]

From the start of the 20th century, views were normally sold as postcards by Valentine and others.

from mid- 1860s

Cartes de Visite

Small Portraits

In the 19th century, studio portraits were usually produced as either cartes de visite (the smaller size) or cabinet prints (the larger size). 

Photograph albums were usually designed so that these sizes of photo could be slotted into them.

Size

Cartes de visite 3.5 ins x 2.25 ins photos mounted on trade cards 4.125 ins  x 2.5 ins.

Cartes de visite were:

    -  invented by Count Olympe Aguado

    -  patented by AAE Disderi, France, 1854.

They enabled 4, 6 or 10 different image to be exposed on a single glass plate.

Most cartes de visites were used for portraits

from 1853

See Dates

The Price of Cartes de Visite

A photographer of high standing might have charged 10s 6d (0.525) for a dozen for cartes de visite.

But some photographers charged only 6d (0.025) per dozen, so bringing photographs within the reach of a far wider audience.

[Ref:  Dr Ralph W Rimmer FRPS in an article entitled Poverty: A Subject for PhotographyThe PhotoHistorian, Sep 2003, pp.5-7]

Materials for Cartes de Visite

An advert was placed in the British Journal of Photography Almanac in the early 1860s by The London Stereoscopic Co, 55 Cheapside, London.

It offered:

-  Highly albumenised paper (the same as used by the artists of the company):  12s per quire

-  Cards, plain white best quality:  10s per 1,000

-  Ditto with address lithographed on the back:  21s per 1,000 (first 1,000) then 17s per 1,000.

A Set of Uncut Cartes de Visite

I was interested to see a set of 8 uncut cartes de visite on this Luminous Lint web site.

Coupon Prints

3.5 ins x 1.5 ins 
produced in strips

Edwardian

Glass Plates

for wet collodion

Large Plates

Ken Watson, USA, a practitioner of the wet collodion process, wrote:

"The largest plate made in America was 18 x 22 ins, derived from the largest size of Albumen paper that could be bought from France.

In the 1860s, there were no enlargers, so all prints were contact prints.  Carleton Watkins had a camera specially made to take 18 x 22 ins plates.  His views of Yosemite are recommended."

However, Christopher A Wright, a calotype and wet and dry collodion photographer, and consultant to the Getty Museum provided details of several enlargers from the 1860s and earlier.

1850s onwards

Sizes in USA, UK, Europe

I have not investigated the range of sizes of glass plate that were made, and how these differed between USA, UK and Europe.  There seems to be scope for a lot of research.

Perhaps somebody will provide a link to a site that gives this information.  Meanwhile, here is a comment that I received recently from Bill Hibbert:

"Typically plate sizes are 9 x 12, 13 x 18, 18 x 24 cm etc. I have only half plates, one set of which date from the USA in 1906 and another set from France around 1910-20. These are all close to 13x18 (or 5" x 7" in imperial) - within 2 or 3 mm in every case.

I presume there was considerable variation in practice, particularly in the 19th century when standards were still being established."

My own interest is in stereo/3D photography, for which the standard glass plate sizes are 45 x 107mm and 6 x 13 cm. You will note the 6x13 looks like a 13x18 half plate cut into three

I haven't checked the 45x107mm size, but no doubt it can be made economically from one of the larger formats."

Bill Hibbert, Suffolk, England:  May 8, 2012

Whole Plate, Half Plate, Quarter Plate

See also (below) - Glass Plate and Paper Sizes

Imperial Prints

IMP

9.875 ins x 6.875 ins 

from when?

Imperial Size

Photographs measuring 12ins x 8ins, sold by Valentine for two shillings (0.10) each.
[Roddy Simpson]

from mid- 1860s

This size was referred to as 'very long cabinet style photographs' in Marcel Safier's comments about photograph albums

from 1890s

Minette

Minettes were photos about 1.5 ins x 2.5 ins mounted on cards 1.625 ins x 3 ins.

Minettes are mentioned Marcel Safier's comments about photograph albums

from 1870s

Panel Prints

5.25 ins x 1.75 ins OR
8.25 ins x 4 ins

early 1900s

Paris Panels

This size was referred to as 'very long cabinet style photographs' in Marcel Safier's comments about photograph albums

Marcel says that they were more suited to framing than photograph albums.

from 1890s

Photograph Albums

Here are some observations on photograph albums and the size of prints they were designed to hold in the late-Victorian era.

1860s to 1900

Glass Plate
and Paper
Sizes

8.5 ins x 6.5 ins (whole plate) OR
6.5 ins x 4.75 ins (half-plate)  [See NOTE below)

4.25 ins x 3.25 ins (quarter-plate)

NOTE: The sizes quoted above are the sizes of half-plate photographic papers that I used to buy.  In particular, this half-plate size is a little longer than half of a whole plate. 

I presume that paper was sold in this size (rather than 6.5 ins x 4.25 ins) to keep the paper approximately in the same proportions as for whole-plate and quarter plate photos.  i.e. with the long side about 1.3 x the short side.

However, half-plate glass plates would have been cut by cutting a whole-plate sheet of glass into two, so I expect that these would have been 6.5 ins x 4.25 ins.

Half-plate negatives were presumably made to fit into cameras designed for half-plate glass slides so I these may well have also been 6.5 ins x 4.25 ins.

Whole-plate sheets of glass were also cut into smaller sizes including 1/6th plate, 1/9th-plate, 1/12th plate.

Victorian,  Edwardian and later

Polyfotos

Polyfotos were popular in the 1950s  -  48 different small photos, often of children,  were contact printed onto a single sheet, then the best would be chosen to be enlarged.

This Science & Society web site has examples of Polyfotos.

c.1950s

Post Cards

An international postcard craze developed following the Paris Exhibition in 1889.

Court Cards:  4.5 ins x 3.5 ins
From 1899:  5.25 ins x 3.25 ins
More recently:  Also larger cards

from 1894
UK

Promenade Prints

7 ins x 4 ins

from 1875

Roll Film

Early roll film:

2.5 ins Eastman circular negatives (1888)

Popular roll film from the early 1900s onwards.

2 ins x 1 ins (120) for Kodak Brownie 1900

3.25 ins x 2.25 ins (120) for Brownie2 - 1901/2 

120 film is still sold today and used to expose 8 negatives 3.25 ins x 2.25 ins or 12 negatives 2.25 ins x 2.25 ins.

220 film  is also sold.  It is similar to 120 but twice as long.

2.5 ins x 1.625 ins  (8 exposures) OR
1.625 ins x 1.625 ins (12 exposures (127 film) 1912

Larger film for early folding cameras from 1890s included:

4.25 ins x 3.25 ins (quarter plate)

5.5 ins x 3.25 ins (post card)

Some smaller negative sizes were introduced in the 1930s, once enlarging had become more widespread.  These included:

2.25 ins x 1.25 ins and

1.5 ins x 1.25 ins

 Equipment from the 1890s  -  RegularKodet Camera

Here is a camera introduced in 1895 that was designed to work with either film or slide.

1888

Stereo Cards

Pairs of photos, each 3 ins x 3 ins  
mounted on card 7 ins x 3.25 ins

OR mounted on card 7 ins x 3.25 ins

from 1854
Europe

from c.1859
USA

IMP

Victoria Prints

IMP

Photos 3.5 ins x 5 ins   

from 1870s

Wallet Size Prints

IMP

Browsing through the internet tells me that 'wallet size' is a term used for photos between about
3 ins x 2 ins and 3.5 ins x2.5 ins   

current

Coloured Prints

7 ins long

Examples of coloured photographs from the early 1900s.  What process was used to produce these?

Please click this link to see these
Panoramic Images

early 1900s

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:

1. Much of the detail above has been taken from Dating Old Photographs.-  a very useful booklet which also looks at fashion and other means of dating early photos.

2. IMP: Details were originally Published By George Eastman House, Rochester, New York (Now: International Museum Of Photography)

Chart of Sizes

A few examples of

Plates, Negatives and Prints

Chart giving a comparison of the sizes of some glass plates, negatives and prints.

 

 

Early Photography -  More pages

All Pages       Processes      Types of Photograph       Prices charged       Sizes

 

 

Links to Other Pages

EdinPhoto - Home Page      Please send me an e-mail ...  with your questions, comments, suggestions or news.      At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.            At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.

Photographs and Other Images  -  These include portraits of photographers  -  photographic outings -  Princes Street views  -  Newhaven Fishwives  -  etc.  Early Photography in Edinburgh  -  Talbot, Brewster, Hill & Adamson, Early Professional Photographers in Princes Street, etc.  Professional Photographers in Edinburgh  -  1840 to 1940  -  Their names, dates of business and studio addresses.  The Photographic Society of Scotland  -  1856 to 1873  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, etc.  The History of Edinburgh Photographic Society  -  1861 to date  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, Poems, etc.  EPS Publications - EPS Handwritten Records  -  Photographic Journals  -  Trade Directories  -  Books  -  etc.  Thanks to all who have encouraged and supported me in creating the EdinPhoto web site  -  including descendants of photogrpahers  -  researchers  -  providers of photographs and other material  Background notes on the research thal led up to the creation of this site  -   together with lists of new material added to the site since its launch.  Brief comments on how this site might be used  -  Just browsing?  -  Seeking specific information?  Please add your questions, suggestions or other comments to the Guest Book.  Links to other web sites  -  Photographic Societies  -  Photographic History  -  Family History  -  etc.  Click here to find the link to the Edinburgh Photogrpahic Society web site.  Details of who owns the copyright of photographs and other mateiral on this web site.

A selection of my photographs, many from Edinburgh throughout the year.   Also photos from Scotland, London, Iceland, Italy, Hong Kong and elsewhere    Many old maps of Edinburgh (Old Town, New Town, while City), Leith and Newhaven.  Includes several old transport maps and a comparison of old maps with recent aerial photos.   Old engravings, mailly of Edinburgh scenes.  Some from the 1820s, some from the 1890s,  some others - includes many hand-coloured examples from the 1820s.   News from Edinburgh today  -  Events, Collections, Buildings and Gardens, Transport   This site includes     1. Post card portraits taken in studios in Edinburgh:    2. Post card views either takeen/published by Ediburgh photographers or views of Edinburgh, or both.y Edinburgh    Views of Edinburgh, grouped into three sections:     1. Street views:    2. Buildings:    3. Around Edinburgh   Views of transport around Edinburgh  -  Horse drawn trams and buses, cable cars, electric trams, buses and a few railway photos.  Also several maps of Edinburgh's bus and tram routes.   Summary of the updates added to this site each month since the site was launched   Frequently Asked Questions

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