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EdinPhoto - Home Page      Please send me an e-mail ...  with your questions, comments, suggestions or news.      At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.            At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.

Photographs and Other Images  -  These include portraits of photographers  -  photographic outings -  Princes Street views  -  Newhaven Fishwives  -  etc.  Early Photography in Edinburgh  -  Talbot, Brewster, Hill & Adamson, Early Professional Photographers in Princes Street, etc.  Professional Photographers in Edinburgh  -  1840 to 1940  -  Their names, dates of business and studio addresses.  The Photographic Society of Scotland  -  1856 to 1873  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, etc.  The History of Edinburgh Photographic Society  -  1861 to date  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, Poems, etc.  EPS Publications - EPS Handwritten Records  -  Photographic Journals  -  Trade Directories  -  Books  -  etc.  Thanks to all who have encouraged and supported me in creating the EdinPhoto web site  -  including descendants of photogrpahers  -  researchers  -  providers of photographs and other material  Background notes on the research thal led up to the creation of this site  -   together with lists of new material added to the site since its launch.  Brief comments on how this site might be used  -  Just browsing?  -  Seeking specific information?  Please add your questions, suggestions or other comments to the Guest Book.  Links to other web sites  -  Photographic Societies  -  Photographic History  -  Family History  -  etc.  Click here to find the link to the Edinburgh Photogrpahic Society web site.  Details of who owns the copyright of photographs and other mateiral on this web site.

A selection of my photographs, many from Edinburgh throughout the year.   Also photos from Scotland, London, Iceland, Italy, Hong Kong and elsewhere    Many old maps of Edinburgh (Old Town, New Town, while City), Leith and Newhaven.  Includes several old transport maps and a comparison of old maps with recent aerial photos.   Old engravings, mailly of Edinburgh scenes.  Some from the 1820s, some from the 1890s,  some others - includes many hand-coloured examples from the 1820s.   News from Edinburgh today  -  Events, Collections, Buildings and Gardens, Transport   This site includes     1. Post card portraits taken in studios in Edinburgh:    2. Post card views either takeen/published by Ediburgh photographers or views of Edinburgh, or both.y Edinburgh    Views of Edinburgh, grouped into three sections:     1. Street views:    2. Buildings:    3. Around Edinburgh   Views of transport around Edinburgh  -  Horse drawn trams and buses, cable cars, electric trams, buses and a few railway photos.  Also several maps of Edinburgh's bus and tram routes.   Summary of the updates added to this site each month since the site was launched   Frequently Asked Questions

 

 

Early Photographic Processes

Autochrome

1907 - 1940

Discovery

The autochrome process was discovered by the brothers Auguste and Louis Lumiere of Lyons in France.  It was  patented in 1904;  1906 in the USA. 

The process was made commercially available from 1907 until about 1940.

Process

Autochrome was the first generally available process for colour photography.

The Lumiere brothers' company sold Autochrome glass plates is sizes from under 2 ins x 2 ins up to 15 ins x 18 ins.

Creating the Plate

1.  To create the plates:

a)  miniscule grains of potato starch were died, some green, some red-orange, and some blue violet, then all three colours were well mixed.

b)  the glass slide was coated with varnish, then a thin layer of the mixed coloured starch was added.

c)  a further coat of varnish was added.

d)  the slide was then coated with a layer of orthochromatic gelatin bromide emulsion.

Exposing the Plate

2.  The slide was exposed in the camera, with the emulsion side furthest from the lens, so that the light had to pass through the starch before reaching the film.  [The starch acted as a filter and so recorded the intensity of light in each of the three colours.

Processing the Plate

3.  The plate was then processed in the darkroom to produce a slide with a positive image (i.e. developed, washed, bleached, exposed, re-developed, washed and fixed).

For further comments see 'In Edinburgh - 1910' below

Result

The Image

The autochrome process produced a coloured transparency on glass, with luminous colours.

Autochrome Slide  -  Flowers

It can be viewed by holding the slide up to the light or by projecting its image onto a screen. 

The grains of starch gave autochromes a pointillist appearance.

In Edinburgh 

1870s - 1900s

The concept of colour printing was not new to the Members of Edinburgh Photographic Society when the autochrome process became available.

EPS Members had discussed colour photography at its Wednesday Meetings:

-   on 6 occasions in the 1870s

-   on 5 occasions in the 1890s.

-   on 5 occasions in the 1900s.

A demonstrated of the autochrome process was given to the EPS Optical Lantern Section on 11 March 1908.

1910

1.  In the EPS Open Exhibition in 1910, one of the four Classes was for "Photographs in Colour (any process)".

2.  In the EPS Members' Exhibition in 1910, one of the nine Sections was for ""Colour Work".  No prizes were awarded for this Section.  I don't know whether or not the Section had any exhibits.

3.  W Inglis Clerk gave a lecture to EPS on Saturday 5 March, entitled Photographs in Natural Colours.  He described his use of the Autochrome process, including:

Exposure

-  Treat the slide carefully.  It is very delicate.

-  Polish the back of the plate carefully to remove all dirt

-  Exposing the slide - recommend 2 seconds at f8

Processing

-  Process in the darkroom under a green (rather than ruby) light.

-   Develop (Rodinal , 1 in 10),  rinse, use permanganate reversing solution,  rinse, expose to light until black, rinse,  dry,  varnish.    Normally no need to fix or intensify.

W Inglis also referred briefly to the Omnicolore plate which he said required about half the exposure of the Autochrome, gave more brilliant colours and was suitable for gloomy weather.

1910s - 1930s

There were 18 autochrome entries, amongst the total entry of 227 photos in the EPS Open Exhibition, 1912.

In the EPS Members' Exhibition, 1913, it was reported that "all classes were well represented, none more so than the autochromes."

On 3 December 1919, W E Redding gave a lecture titled Some Autochrome Pictures.

EPS continued to discuss colour photography at its Wednesday Meetings:

-  on 9 occasions in the 1920s.

-  on 3 occasions in the 1930s.

However other colour materials had become available by the 1930s.

In 1936:

-  Kodachrome started to market their Kodachrome film in 35mm format, having first introduced for home movies in 1935.

-  Agfacolor began to sell their colour film.

In 1937:

-  A lecture titled: A Selection of Lantern Slides in Dufraycolor was given to Edinburgh Photographic Society by WJ Sharp.

Acknowledgements:  USA Patent details:       bway.net web site
in Edinburgh 1910 Lecture:     Transactions of EPS:  April 1910,  pp 7-8
in Edinburgh (other)      Wide range of EPS literature
Background info on the process:  Looking at Photographs (Gordon Baldwin)

 

 

Early Photography -  More pages

All Pages       Processes      Types of Photograph       Prices charged       Sizes

 

 

 

Links to Other Pages

EdinPhoto - Home Page      Please send me an e-mail ...  with your questions, comments, suggestions or news.      At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.            At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.

Photographs and Other Images  -  These include portraits of photographers  -  photographic outings -  Princes Street views  -  Newhaven Fishwives  -  etc.  Early Photography in Edinburgh  -  Talbot, Brewster, Hill & Adamson, Early Professional Photographers in Princes Street, etc.  Professional Photographers in Edinburgh  -  1840 to 1940  -  Their names, dates of business and studio addresses.  The Photographic Society of Scotland  -  1856 to 1873  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, etc.  The History of Edinburgh Photographic Society  -  1861 to date  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, Poems, etc.  EPS Publications - EPS Handwritten Records  -  Photographic Journals  -  Trade Directories  -  Books  -  etc.  Thanks to all who have encouraged and supported me in creating the EdinPhoto web site  -  including descendants of photogrpahers  -  researchers  -  providers of photographs and other material  Background notes on the research thal led up to the creation of this site  -   together with lists of new material added to the site since its launch.  Brief comments on how this site might be used  -  Just browsing?  -  Seeking specific information?  Please add your questions, suggestions or other comments to the Guest Book.  Links to other web sites  -  Photographic Societies  -  Photographic History  -  Family History  -  etc.  Click here to find the link to the Edinburgh Photogrpahic Society web site.  Details of who owns the copyright of photographs and other mateiral on this web site.

A selection of my photographs, many from Edinburgh throughout the year.   Also photos from Scotland, London, Iceland, Italy, Hong Kong and elsewhere    Many old maps of Edinburgh (Old Town, New Town, while City), Leith and Newhaven.  Includes several old transport maps and a comparison of old maps with recent aerial photos.   Old engravings, mailly of Edinburgh scenes.  Some from the 1820s, some from the 1890s,  some others - includes many hand-coloured examples from the 1820s.   News from Edinburgh today  -  Events, Collections, Buildings and Gardens, Transport   This site includes     1. Post card portraits taken in studios in Edinburgh:    2. Post card views either takeen/published by Ediburgh photographers or views of Edinburgh, or both.y Edinburgh    Views of Edinburgh, grouped into three sections:     1. Street views:    2. Buildings:    3. Around Edinburgh   Views of transport around Edinburgh  -  Horse drawn trams and buses, cable cars, electric trams, buses and a few railway photos.  Also several maps of Edinburgh's bus and tram routes.   Summary of the updates added to this site each month since the site was launched   Frequently Asked Questions

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