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EdinPhoto - Home Page  Please send me an e-mail ...  with your questions, comments, suggestions or news.   At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.     At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.  

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A selection of my photographs, many from Edinburgh throughout the year.   Also photos from Scotland, London, Iceland, Italy, Hong Kong and elsewhere     Many old maps of Edinburgh (Old Town, New Town, while City), Leith and Newhaven.  Includes several old transport maps and a comparison of old maps with recent aerial photos.   Old engravings, mailly of Edinburgh scenes.  Some from the 1820s, some from the 1890s,  some others - includes many hand-coloured examples from the 1820s.   News from Edinburgh today  -  Events, Collections, Buildings and Gardens, Transport   This site includes     1. Post card portraits taken in studios in Edinburgh:    2. Post card views either takeen/published by Ediburgh photographers or views of Edinburgh, or both.y Edinburgh    Views of Edinburgh, grouped into three sections:     1. Street views:    2. Buildings:    3. Around Edinburgh   Views of transport around Edinburgh  -  Horse drawn trams and buses, cable cars, electric trams, buses and a few railway photos.  Also several maps of Edinburgh's bus and tram routes.   Links to pages with Photos of Groups   Frequently Asked Questions

  Summary of the updates added to this site each month since the site was launched   Links to Dumbiedykes pages  Link to Granton pages  Link to Leith pages   Link to Newhaven pages   Links to Portobello pages   Link to My Recent Talks

 

Brown Brothers

Steam and Other Catapults

 

Recollections

1.

Alex Dow

Fife, Scotland

Alex Dow reply to Alastair Adams' Recollections 15 about steam catapults.

Alex wrote:

Steam Catapults

"If you take a look at this Navy History site, you'll see that Steam Catapults were basically a post-WW2 innovation, involving Brown Brothers, etc."

Steam Catapults

"Alistair's father was probably working on the earlier Hydraulic Catapults; and I think that there were not many of those in the Flight Deck.

He could also be confused with the short-ramp variety used from WW1 and eventually epitomized by the use with Hurricats - Hurricanes modified for ramp take-off from the Merchant Aircraft Carriers, where there was only one plane aboard, one take-off ramp and NO Landing Deck.  So, the plane was normally ditched unless close to land."

Brown Brothers

"Brown Brothers had a model of the earlier inter-war version, complete with a model Walrus Amphibian. I helped to demonstrate this and their Hydraulic Steering Gear at the 1949 Parish Industries Exhibition at McDonald Road Church."

Prop-driven Aircraft

"Prop-driven aircraft create a fair amount of lift when stationary in windless conditions, just by the air flow created by the prop/s over the wings.

If you ever flew in such a plane, you would notice that even on a calm day, the aircraft would lift and fall in its own airstream, when revving up at the start of the runway. In part it is also the reason for the ground crew member sitting on the tail plane when taxiing over the airfield, or clinging on to the wing tips."

Jet Aircraft

"The air streams from jet aircraft go nowhere near the wings, whether inboard like the Comet or outboard like most modern airliners. Hence it was the introduction of pure jets to naval flying that forced the development of the steam catapult."

Hydraulic Catapults

"The earlier hydraulic versions required totally separate plumbing, compressors, hydraulic reservoirs and had limited travel from the need to fully contain the pressurised hydraulic oil, to minimise/avoid the loss of the oil, particularly on to the deck and deck crew. It also took some time to 're-arm' the system for the next take-off, one plane at a time.

The oil, like most fluids, is virtually incompressible, so that you are dependent upon a small pressure vessel to achieve the drive."

Steam Catapults

"The later steam catapult could be plumbed in to the existing large capacity on-board boilers, using superheated water. When this is released in to the launch piston, it expands up to 800 times the volume, so maintaining a positiverive to the piston and aircraft, through the full stroke length.

Any losses from the system rapidly pass through the water vapour phase to water, cooling simultaneously, so much less of a menace on the deck and for the deck crew.

Some of the USA Nuclear-powered Carriers with four catapults can launch an aircraft every 20 seconds. The superheated water comes from the cooling system for the nuclear reactors."

Alex Dow, Fife, Scotland:  May 23, 2011

 

See also:  Leith during World War II -  Mini-Blitz

Recollections  -  More Pages

Recollections  -   Contributors

 

__________________

 

Links to Other Pages

EdinPhoto - Home Page  Please send me an e-mail ...  with your questions, comments, suggestions or news.   At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.     At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.  

Photographs and Other Images  -  These include portraits of photographers  -  photographic outings -  Princes Street views  -  Newhaven Fishwives  -  etc.  Early Photography in Edinburgh  -  Talbot, Brewster, Hill & Adamson, Early Professional Photographers in Princes Street, etc.  Professional Photographers in Edinburgh  -  1840 to 1940  -  Their names, dates of business and studio addresses.  The Photographic Society of Scotland  -  1856 to 1873  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, etc.  The History of Edinburgh Photographic Society  -  1861 to date  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, Poems, etc.  EPS Publications - EPS Handwritten Records  -  Photographic Journals  -  Trade Directories  -  Books  -  etc.  Thanks to all who have encouraged and supported me in creating the EdinPhoto web site  -  including descendants of photographers  -  researchers  -  providers of photographs and other material  Background notes on the research thal led up to the creation of this site  -   together with lists of new material added to the site since its launch.  Brief comments on how this site might be used  -  Just browsing?  -  Seeking specific information?  Please add your questions, suggestions or other comments to the Guest Book.  Links to other web sites  -  Photographic Societies  -  Photographic History  -  Family History  -  etc.  Click here to find the link to the Edinburgh Photogrpahic Society web site.

 

A selection of my photographs, many from Edinburgh throughout the year.   Also photos from Scotland, London, Iceland, Italy, Hong Kong and elsewhere     Many old maps of Edinburgh (Old Town, New Town, while City), Leith and Newhaven.  Includes several old transport maps and a comparison of old maps with recent aerial photos.   Old engravings, mailly of Edinburgh scenes.  Some from the 1820s, some from the 1890s,  some others - includes many hand-coloured examples from the 1820s.   News from Edinburgh today  -  Events, Collections, Buildings and Gardens, Transport   This site includes     1. Post card portraits taken in studios in Edinburgh:    2. Post card views either takeen/published by Ediburgh photographers or views of Edinburgh, or both.y Edinburgh    Views of Edinburgh, grouped into three sections:     1. Street views:    2. Buildings:    3. Around Edinburgh   Views of transport around Edinburgh  -  Horse drawn trams and buses, cable cars, electric trams, buses and a few railway photos.  Also several maps of Edinburgh's bus and tram routes.   Links to pages with Photos of Groups   Frequently Asked Questions

  Summary of the updates added to this site each month since the site was launched   Links to Dumbiedykes pages  Link to Granton pages  Link to Leith pages   Link to Newhaven pages   Links to Portobello pages   Link to My Recent Talks