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Photographs and Other Images  -  These include portraits of photographers  -  photographic outings -  Princes Street views  -  Newhaven Fishwives  -  etc.  Early Photography in Edinburgh  -  Talbot, Brewster, Hill & Adamson, Early Professional Photographers in Princes Street, etc.  Professional Photographers in Edinburgh  -  1840 to 1940  -  Their names, dates of business and studio addresses.  The Photographic Society of Scotland  -  1856 to 1873  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, etc.  The History of Edinburgh Photographic Society  -  1861 to date  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, Poems, etc.  EPS Publications - EPS Handwritten Records  -  Photographic Journals  -  Trade Directories  -  Books  -  etc.  Thanks to all who have encouraged and supported me in creating the EdinPhoto web site  -  including descendants of photogrpahers  -  researchers  -  providers of photographs and other material  Background notes on the research thal led up to the creation of this site  -   together with lists of new material added to the site since its launch.  Brief comments on how this site might be used  -  Just browsing?  -  Seeking specific information?  Please add your questions, suggestions or other comments to the Guest Book.  Links to other web sites  -  Photographic Societies  -  Photographic History  -  Family History  -  etc.  Click here to find the link to the Edinburgh Photogrpahic Society web site.  Details of who owns the copyright of photographs and other mateiral on this web site.

A selection of my photographs, many from Edinburgh throughout the year.   Also photos from Scotland, London, Iceland, Italy, Hong Kong and elsewhere    Many old maps of Edinburgh (Old Town, New Town, while City), Leith and Newhaven.  Includes several old transport maps and a comparison of old maps with recent aerial photos.   Old engravings, mailly of Edinburgh scenes.  Some from the 1820s, some from the 1890s,  some others - includes many hand-coloured examples from the 1820s.   News from Edinburgh today  -  Events, Collections, Buildings and Gardens, Transport   This site includes     1. Post card portraits taken in studios in Edinburgh:    2. Post card views either takeen/published by Ediburgh photographers or views of Edinburgh, or both.y Edinburgh    Views of Edinburgh, grouped into three sections:     1. Street views:    2. Buildings:    3. Around Edinburgh   Views of transport around Edinburgh  -  Horse drawn trams and buses, cable cars, electric trams, buses and a few railway photos.  Also several maps of Edinburgh's bus and tram routes.   Summary of the updates added to this site each month since the site was launched   Frequently Asked Questions

 

 

Ethnographic Postcards in Scotland

1

Early History

From 1870s

2

Postcard Use

Messages on Postcards

Postcard Portraits

3

Postcard Publishers

George Stewart

Valentine & Sons

Others

4

Views of Scotland

Wells and Fountains

The Scottish Highlands

Edinburgh

5

Scottish
Life and Character

Raphael Tuck

Other talks:    Ethnographic Photography in Scotland

Other talks:    History of Photography

 

Edinburgh University, School of Literature, Language and Cultures, Celtic and Scottish Studies

2nd Year Lecture:  February 23, 2010  -  Ethnographic Postcards

 

Ethnographic Postcards  -  Page 1

 

Ethnographic Postcards in Scotland

Early History

 

1.

Photos then Postcards

Valentine's Books

  • Between about 1890 and 1910, Valentine & Sons also produced a range of books of their photos at prices considerably lower than they had charged in earlier years for their Drawing Room Albums.

  • There were many book titles, including:

-  Photographic view album of Alva and district

-  Photographic view album of Falkland and district

-  Photographic view album of Girvan

-  Photographic view album of Gourock and district

-  Photographic view album of West Kilbride and district

-  Views of the Trossachs and Loch Lomond

-  Edinburgh: Collotype View Book

Front Cover

The front cover of Valentine & Sons Collotype View Series book - Edinburgh

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Inside the Back Cover

Inside the back cover of Valentine & Sons Collotype View Series book - Edinburgh

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Holyrood Abbey, Holyrood Palace

Arthur's Seat in Holyrood Park is in the background

  • Here is a stereo view by G W Wilson:

GW Wilson stereo card - Holyrood Palace

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

 

  • Here are three 'straight photos' of Holyrood Abbey and Palace.  Nothing has been done to modify this view in any way to make it more appealing - that was not necessary!

  • The three views are by different photographers but are very similar to each other.  The view has changed very little over more than a century since these photos were taken, except for the fact that it is likely to be more hidden by trees today. 

1.

Photographer:  James Patrick

Albumen Print of Holyrood Palace and Abbey from Calton Hill  -  James Valentine  -  1878 or earlier

©  Reproduced with acknowledgement to Nick Tilley, Oakley, Hampshire, England.

2.

Photographer: James Valentine

Albumen Print of Holyrood Palace and Abbey from Calton Hill  -  James Valentine  -  1878 or earlier

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

3.

Photographer:  George Washington Wilson

George Washington WIlson's Albumen Print of Holyrood Palace and Arthur's Seat

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

  • The photos above are all true to life.  However, the next one creates a more romantic, misty atmosphere.  It was published as a 'Photogravure  Series' postcard in Valentine & Sons'.

4.

Postcard:  Valentine & Sons

Valentine Postcard  -  Holyrood Palace and Arthur's Seat in Holyrood Park  -  1923  -  Photogravure

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

__________________________________

The Three Photogaphers

who photographed Holyrood Abbey, above

                        

Patrick

 Albumen Print of Holyrood Palace and Abbey from Calton Hill  -  James Valentine  -  1878 or earlier ©

Valentine

Albumen Print of Holyrood Palace and Abbey from Calton Hill  -  James Valentine  -  1878 or earlier ©

Wilson

George Washington WIlson's Albumen Print of Holyrood Palace and Arthur's Seat ©

James Patrick

  • James Patrick was born in Fife in 1863.  He and his son, John, were both active members of Edinburgh Photographic Society.  James gave lectures showed lantern slides to the society over 20 years from 1883, and became President in 1897.

  • He was keen to promote photography as a fine art, and spoke of:

  •  “men of artistic instinct, and a love for the beautiful and grand in nature, who now find in photography a means of expressing their thoughts and feelings.”

  • James produced many postcards of Swanston to the south of Edinburgh at the foot of the Pentland Hills.

Valentine & Sons

  • Valentine's topological views for the middle class and upper class tourist market.  They were sold separately and in drawing room albums:

              -  imperial (approx 12 ins x 8 ins)
              -  cabinet (approx 8 ins x 6 ins) and
              -  card (approx 4 ins x 3 ins).

  • Prices ranged from:
          
       -  Card (small print):  6d                                  (Equivalent, 2010 = £2)
             -  Album bound in finest morocco: 15 Gns    (Equivalent, 2010 = £1,300)

G W Wilson

  • G W Wilson always regarded himself as an artist, rather than 'just a photographer'.

  • In the mid-1850s, as tourism was becoming more popular, he began to produce stereo views.  These he sold at 2 shilling each.              (Equivalent, 2010 = £10)

  • Wilson photographed Queen Victoria when she came to Balmoral to grieve, following the death of her husband, Prince Albert, in 1861.  In 1863, sold almost 13,000 copies of his cartes de visite photograph of Queen Victoria.

  • In his catalogue in the 1880s, he listed more than 10,000 views of Scotland.

  • Around that time, like other photographers, he was concerned about the permanence of photographic images, so he began to offer some photos printed by the carbon process.  Not everybody would have been able to afford these.

  • His prices (and the equivalent price today, allowing for inflation) were:

          -  17 ins x 11.5 ins:    10s 6d                                    (Equivalent, 2010 = £42)
          -  24 ins x 18 ins:       15s 0d                                    (Equivalent, 2010 = £60)
          -  17 ins x 11.5 ins, hand-coloured:    25s 0d          (Equivalent, 2010 = £100)
          -  24 ins x 18 ins, hand-coloured:       35s 0d          (Equivalent, 2010 = £140)

                     Source:  George Washington Wilson, Artist and Photographer 1823-1893 (Roger Taylor)  Publ. Aberdeen University Press

__________________________________

Types and Dates

of Postcards

Britain's First Postcards

1870

  • Postcards have been used in Britain since they were first introduced by the Post Office in 1870.  These cards were plain cards issued by the Post Office.  They had a pre-printed stamp.

  • The address was written on one side of the card and the message, often very brief, was written on the other side.  There was no picture.  Here is an example form 1890, in which one Edinburgh photographer is advising another of the date of a photographic society meeting:

The front of a Post Card giving details of a Viewfinders Club Meeting

©  Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh Photographic Society

The back of a post card giving details of a Viewfinders Club Meeting

©  Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh Photographic Society

1894

Britain's first Picture Postcards

  • From 1 September 1894, the Post Office allowed  postcards published by others to be posted.  A halfpenny adhesive stamp was to be added to these cards before posting.

  • Several manufacturers produced cards.  The first publisher to include pictures on their postcards is believed to have been George Stewart of 92 George Street, Edinburgh.

    Court Cards

    1895

  • From 1895 onwards, a  size of 4.75 ins x 3.5 ins was adopted for postcards.  These were known as Court Cards.  The address was written on one side.  The reverse bore a small picture leaving sufficient space to write a message.

  • Here is an early court card by Valentine's.  The company first produced postcards in 1897.

Standard size of Postcard

1899

  • From 1899 onwards, the  standard size of 5.25ins ins x 3.5 ins, already in use in other countries, was accepted in Britain.

  • The address, and nothing else, still had to be written on the back of the card.  The front was used for the picture and message.  Sometimes, the picture covered most of the card, leaving little room for the message.

Postcard  -  Castle Series  -  Edinburgh Castle and National Galleries with quote

©  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Back of a postcard  -  Castle Series  -  Edinburgh Castle and National Galleries with quote

Divided Backs

1902

  • In 1902 the Post Office in Britain changed the rules to allow the back of the card (which post office workers incidentally referred to as the 'front' of the card) to be used for:

ON THE LEFT:   The message.

ON THE RIGHT:  The address.

  • Publishers normally printed a line down the middle of the back of the card to separate the two halves.  These became known as 'divided back cards'.  The divided back is an indication that the card would have been published in 1902 or later if the card was British.

  • Britain was the first country to adopt the divided back.  Other countries followed later, USA in 1907.

Halfpenny Post

to 1918

  • From the time that postcards were first allowed in Britain, in 1870:
            -  the cost of inland postage was one halfpenny
    (about £0.002).
            -  the cost of posting a letter inland was a penny
    (about £0.004).

  • This halfpenny postage rate remained unchanged until 1918.  Here are some cards with halfpenny stamps from the reigns of Queen Victoria, King Edward VII and King George V.  One of these cards bears two halfpenny stamps.  That one was posted overseas.

    Three postcards  - Queen Victoria Stamps © 

    Four Postcards  -  Halfpenny Postage  -  King Edward VII and King George VI © 

    Decline in Use

    of Postcards

    Post-1914

  • Decline in the hobby of collecting picture postcards began with the outbreak of World War I in 1914, and continued later in the decade when the Post Office increased the cost of posting a card from a halfpenny:

½d  Halfpenny stamp on a postcard posted 1899 ©  Halfpenny stamp on a postcard posted 1901 ©  Halfpenny stamp on a postcard posted 1903 ©  Halfpenny stamp on a postcard posted 1905 ©  Halfpenny stamp on postcard posted 1912 © Halfpenny stamp on postcard posted 1917 ©

 -  in 1918, to a penny:    1d  Penny stamp on postcard posted 1921 ©

 -  then in 1921, to three halfpence:    1½ Three halfpenny stamp on postcard posted 1922 ©

  • However, following major protests, the cost was reduced to a penny in 1922.
    It remained at 1d for a further 18 years until it increased to 2d in 1940, soon after the outbreak of World War II.

1d  Penny stamp on postcard posted 1921 ©    Penny stamp on postcard posted 1935 ©    Penny stamp on postcard posted 1936 ©    Penny stamp -  red  -  KIng George VI  ©

____________________________________

 

End of Page 1

 

Ethnographic Postcards in Scotland

1

Early History

From 1870s

2

Postcard Use

Messages on Postcards

Postcard Portraits

3

Postcard Publishers

George Stewart

Valentine & Sons

Others

4

Views of Scotland

Wells and Fountains

The Scottish Highlands

Edinburgh

5

Scottish
Life and Character

Raphael Tuck

Other talks:    Ethnographic Photography in Scotland

Other talks:    History of Photography

 

 

Links to Other Pages

EdinPhoto - Home Page      Please send me an e-mail ...  with your questions, comments, suggestions or news.      At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.            At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.

Photographs and Other Images  -  These include portraits of photographers  -  photographic outings -  Princes Street views  -  Newhaven Fishwives  -  etc.  Early Photography in Edinburgh  -  Talbot, Brewster, Hill & Adamson, Early Professional Photographers in Princes Street, etc.  Professional Photographers in Edinburgh  -  1840 to 1940  -  Their names, dates of business and studio addresses.  The Photographic Society of Scotland  -  1856 to 1873  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, etc.  The History of Edinburgh Photographic Society  -  1861 to date  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, Poems, etc.  EPS Publications - EPS Handwritten Records  -  Photographic Journals  -  Trade Directories  -  Books  -  etc.  Thanks to all who have encouraged and supported me in creating the EdinPhoto web site  -  including descendants of photogrpahers  -  researchers  -  providers of photographs and other material  Background notes on the research thal led up to the creation of this site  -   together with lists of new material added to the site since its launch.  Brief comments on how this site might be used  -  Just browsing?  -  Seeking specific information?  Please add your questions, suggestions or other comments to the Guest Book.  Links to other web sites  -  Photographic Societies  -  Photographic History  -  Family History  -  etc.  Click here to find the link to the Edinburgh Photogrpahic Society web site.  Details of who owns the copyright of photographs and other mateiral on this web site.

A selection of my photographs, many from Edinburgh throughout the year.   Also photos from Scotland, London, Iceland, Italy, Hong Kong and elsewhere    Many old maps of Edinburgh (Old Town, New Town, while City), Leith and Newhaven.  Includes several old transport maps and a comparison of old maps with recent aerial photos.   Old engravings, mailly of Edinburgh scenes.  Some from the 1820s, some from the 1890s,  some others - includes many hand-coloured examples from the 1820s.   News from Edinburgh today  -  Events, Collections, Buildings and Gardens, Transport   This site includes     1. Post card portraits taken in studios in Edinburgh:    2. Post card views either takeen/published by Ediburgh photographers or views of Edinburgh, or both.y Edinburgh    Views of Edinburgh, grouped into three sections:     1. Street views:    2. Buildings:    3. Around Edinburgh   Views of transport around Edinburgh  -  Horse drawn trams and buses, cable cars, electric trams, buses and a few railway photos.  Also several maps of Edinburgh's bus and tram routes.   Summary of the updates added to this site each month since the site was launched   Frequently Asked Questions

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